It is almost inevitable that you will face a critical m […]
It is almost inevitable that you will face a critical moment in your life, you will face an unhappy child and a toy that can no longer move. You may take the toy apart and rely on your craft to save time. However, when you face a pile of parts, you may wonder how this pile of windings creates movement. Putting broken toys aside, electric motors can be found in the devices that make our modern society move, from cars to clocks to cooling fans in computers.
The motor part
A motor creates a rotating, cyclical movement. The central part of the motor is a cylinder called the rotor or armature. The armature holds the remaining components and is also part of the rotation of the motor. Surrounding the armature is the stator, which is fixed with insulated coils. When current is applied to the motor, the stator will generate a magnetic field that drives the armature. Depending on the design of the motor, you may also find carbon brushes or thin metal rods that allow current to move to the other half of the motor when it rotates.
make it work
You may have noticed that when you have two magnets, opposite sex attracts and same sex repels each other. Motors use this principle to create torque, or rotational force. This is not the current itself, but the force generated by the magnetic field it creates when a motor is moving. The current passes through a wire to create a circular magnetic field with the wire as the source and the center of rotation. When you increase the current, the stator and armature form a stable magnetic field and an electromagnet that is pushed or rotated in this field.
Different types of motors
The basic motor runs on direct current, but other motors run on alternating current. The battery produces direct current, and your home socket is alternating current. In order to be able to run a motor on the AC point, it needs two winding magnets that are not in contact. They move motors through a phenomenon called induction. These induction motors are brushless because they do not require the physical contact that carbon brushes provide. Some DC motors are also brushless and instead use a switch that changes the polarity of the field winding to keep the motor running. The general-purpose motor is an induction motor and can use any kind of power source.
Build a simple motor
Now that you have the basic parts and principles, you can use these concepts at home. Make a coil from the lower meter copper wire and stop it by suspending both ends through an aluminum can. Place a small, strong magnet on both ends of the stop coil to create a magnetic field. You can use alligator clips to attach the battery to the can, your coil will become a magnet, and the copper wire rotor you created should start to spin.